Self-debriefing After Virtual Simulation: Measuring Students' Depth of Reflection (1090-004185) (To be presented during the session entitled, Research Abstract Oral: Debriefing, Communication & Teamwork)
Start time: Friday, January 22, 2021, 8:00 AM End time: Friday, January 22, 2021, 9:00 AM Session Type: Research Abstracts (Completed Studies)
Educators are turning to virtual simulations to expand experiential learning opportunities. The asynchronous nature of virtual simulation presents a challenge to provide facilitator-led debriefs immediately afterward, as recommended by best practice standards. Another core recommendation for any debrief is the promotion of reflection. Facilitator presence is not required, therefore self-debriefing may be a solution for immediate debriefing after virtual simulation, but evidence is lacking as to what extent students can reflect when using self-debriefing. This research sought to answer the following question: What is the depth of reflection found in undergraduate nursing students' written responses to a self-debriefing activity after a virtual simulation?
The aim of this descriptive study was to explore the depth of reflection found in students' responses to questions from a self-debriefing activity. Mezirow's definitions of reflective thinking informed the development of a 4-level rating rubric: L-1=habitual action, L-2=understanding, L-3=reflection, L-4=critical reflection. Following two required virtual simulations, 120 junior-level nursing students were assigned a researcher-developed self-debriefing activity, based on Gibbs' Reflective Cycle. The self-debriefing activity contained six questions (Description, Emotion, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusion, and Future Plan). Students accessed the activity and submitted written responses via Qualtrics. The rubric underwent inter-rater reliability testing prior to analysis.
Data from 176 submissions were rated using the reflection rubric. Over 76% (n=135) of the submissions contained a majority of responses (4 or more out of 6) rated at Reflection (L-3 or L-4). The mean rating for all submissions was identified at 2.92 (.42). The two highest questions' means were Description (3.40) and Analysis (3.10). The lowest questions' means were Evaluation (2.64) and Future Plan (2.66). Fewer than 8% (n < 13) responses were rated as L-1 (habitual action).
Students showed varying levels of reflective thinking as a result of using the self-debriefing activity, with higher levels of reflection during describing and analyzing the event and lower levels of reflection while evaluating actions and planning for future action. These results lend support to the use of a theory-based self-debriefing activity as a method of debriefing that adheres to the best practice recommendation of promoting reflection.